2D Animation | History

1950: The mantic lantern is thought to be the first projector They can be said that they where the first stage of 2D animation. It works similar to the modern ones using a reflective mirror in front of a ray of light which then shows the image on a flat surface.

1824: The Thaumatrope is a small card which has two picture either side of it. After this string is placed through the centre of it this is so when the string is twisted both pictures will seem to merge into one causing Phi Phenomenon this is when the brain believes an image is one.

1831: The Phenakistoscope was the first device which was developed for animation. This was a disk which had a series of images the images would then be drawn onto a radii, The images would be placed in different areas. The images would be spun and the images viewed through a slit that was on the device. This then shown a moving image to the viewer. This was also known as Phi.

1834: The Zoetrope was invented by William George Horner. This was created based on the Phenakistoscope device. The images where placed on the inside of the device and when wanting to be played span. The purpose of the design was so that when the images where being played they didn’t look blurred and the viewer could see the full sequence creating a motion picture.

1868: The Flip Book was a traditional method to create a sense of moving image. This was done by drawing in a book at the bottom of the page. This would be a lot of images which then a viewer could flip through and get the sense of animation.

1877: The Praxinoscope was invented by  Emilie Reynaud she combined the mirror from the Phenakistoscope and the Zoetrope design. The mirrors where placed within the middle of the device this was so the device wasn’t effected by the distance and was very clear to the viewer when they would look at it.

1889: The Kinetoscope was created so that one person could view a piece of moving image through a peephole that was implanted onto the top of the device. The Kinetoscope became the most popular way of viewing a film in the cinema at the time. The device was invented by Thomas Edisson. It worked by a strip of film which had many images which would then play in a sequence creating a film.

1895: The Cinematograph was the first motion film camera created by Louis and Augustine Lumiere. The purpose of this was to fix mistakes made on the Kinetoscope. This made the quality of the picture better and illumination. It could also be projected onto a screen so that a greater number of people where able to watch the animation at one time whereas the Kinetoscope only allowed one person to view this at a time.

1899: Stop animation was created by  Albert E.Smith and Stuart Blackton. This technique makes real life objects seem as if they/’re moving. This is done by an object being moved slowly at a fixed time in order to create photographed frames. When playing the frames all at once it looks although the frames are moving by itself hence creating an ‘illusion.’

1914: Cel Animation was invented by Earl Hurd. This type of animation consists of a cel or a clear sheet of transparent paper. This allows white backgrounds to be created and transparent paper is used so that the other images can be overlapped. This process of animation is very time consuming. This is a long process as the animation has to be approved before it can then be developed further to the final stage to complete the final animation.

1915: Rotoscoping was created by  Max Fleischer. This was created so that it was possible to capture human movement that is believable by sketching over film clips frame by frame. This is done so it can be used on live animation and animated clips. Examples are this are seen in music videos such as Kanye west Hearless, Keane Bedshaped, Beastie Boys Shadrach etc. The clips are photographed and then processed digitally using a graphics filter and once done the animation is told with very little movement.

1923: Disney came up with the idea of Live action and Animation. Combining the two together created another land mark. The point of this was so a live action would be able to interact with something animated. For example Mary Poppins or Space Jam as they both are live action talking to animated things like animals.

1934: Urb Lwrek invented a multi plane camera which had the capacity and the function to film many layers of cels which ended up looking outstanding0. This was done in the traditional process of animation the multiple layer allow movement which can either bee fast or slow this is done to create a three dimensional effect.

1945: Harry Smith came up with the method of drawing straight onto film rather than going through a long process. The drawings would be captured frame by frame from the use of an animation camera. This saved time and money as it was a quicker, effective way of producing animation.

1982: CGI (Computer Graphic Images) was created for a 3D effect this is mostly used in well known films such as Toy Story, How to Train Your Dragon, Finding Nemo, Ice Age etc. This is definitely the one that I think is the most common way of animation today. Especially with the likes of Pixar, Dreamworks etc.

1988: Morphing became popular in 1988 this was a use of special effects to be able to change a person into something else for example an animal. This is done through a sequence of images which changes consistently one after another hence the smooth transition made. An example of this is Michael Jacksons Black or White video. Morphing is used to create fantasy or surreal films.

1993: Jurassic park was the first film ever created which used photo realistic and animal creatures(dinosaurs). At this point in time films where using computers in order to now create their films as it was a new way of editing.

2002: CGI was becoming one of the most used things within films as animation was becoming more and more popular. With this happening software was being developed to be used the one most commonly known was Adobe After Effects. This was a software used on computers to help develop animation and the perspective of films getting made.


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